The IAEA’s Nuclear Security Series provides international consensus guidance on all aspects of nuclear security to support States as they work to fulfil their responsibility for nuclear security. The IAEA states that “The overall objective of a State’s nuclear security regime is to protect persons, property, society, and the environment from the harmful consequences of a nuclear security event. With the aim of achieving this objective, States should establish, implement, maintain and sustain an effective and appropriate nuclear security regime to prevent, detect and respond to such events. The nuclear security regime covers nuclear material and other radioactive material, whether it is under or out of regulatory control, and associated facilities and associated activities throughout their lifetimes.”
The steps on the way to achieving this include the development of a national detection strategy, the development of detection systems and the processes to monitor and act upon alarms. The response to a genuine event includes notification and confirmation/assessment, location and categorisation, recovery of sources and collection and preservation of evidence. These are explained in detail in IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 15.
There is an expectation stated in paragraph 6.21 that “The State should carry out exercises under the plan using credible scenarios. Competent authorities should perform exercises and drills at regular intervals, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan. When possible, States should consider participating in regional and international exercises and drills.” IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 41‑T gives a comprehensive account of how these could be managed.
Exercises can be based on a structured and moderated discussion (a table top exercise) or on activities performed in an operational or field situation to enact a realistic scenario in a manner that simulates, to some extent, the stress and practical constraints of an actual incident (a drill or field training exercise).
The steps taken to plan an exercise include:
- Determination of the key activities to be exercised – the scope and objectives of the exercise;
- The format and type of exercise, identifying the constraints that these impose;
- Agreeing a planning timeline with the key stakeholders;
- Developing and approving an exercise scenario;
- Identifying the exercise participants and their roles and determining how any gaps where organisations are not playing will be filled;
- Developing evaluation criteria.
The report goes through these steps in more detail giving useful advice and warnings as it does. It defines the roles of Exercise Director and exercise planning team; controllers and facilitators, evaluators and players and the support from media spokesperson, observers, safety officer, qualified expert in radiation protection and the rapporteur.
Section 4 of the report discusses: setting up the exercise and preparing for exercise safety; providing exercise briefings; conducting exercise play; and holding debriefing activities and section 5 evaluation.
Appendix 1 gives a useful list of example key activities and actions while Annexes give templates for exercise planning, exercise documentation, assessment and feedback forms and exercise reports as well as an example exercise scenario.
This report is a useful read and contains useful resources for anyone planning such an exercise.